Международная конвенция ИМО

С сентября прошлого года вступила в действие Международная конвенция о контроле судовых балластных вод и осадков и управлении ими 2004 года (Конвенция BWM 2004) — International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments. Начало её обязательного выполнения по просьбе некоторых стран перенесли в последний раз до 8 сентября 2019 года. Все суда валовой вместимостью 400т и более, вне зависимости от их даты постройки и типа, которые имеют право плавания под флагом Стороны, подписавшей Конвенцию, должны быть освидетельствованы на соответствие Конвенции BWM 2004.

Законодательство

Международная конвенция по контролю и управлению судовыми балластными водами и осадками ИМО была одобрена в 2004 году и вступила в силу в сентябре 2017 года. К этому моменту документ ратифицировали 66 стран, на долю которых приходится 75% мирового торгового тоннажа.

Чтобы соответствовать требованиям конвенции, судовладельцам необходимо выполнить ряд условий, одним из которых является установка на судах систем управления балластными водами.

В середине 2017 года, за два месяца до вступления конвенции в силу, состоялась 71-я сессия Комитета по охране окружающей среды ИМО, на которой было принято несколько «компромиссных альтернативных поправок». В результате некоторые существующие суда получили послабление: если возобновляющее освидетельствование по предотвращению загрязнения нефтью было выполнено ранее 8 сентября 2014 года, то соответствовать требованиям конвенции необходимо не при первом освидетельствовании после вступления конвенции в силу, а при втором, что дает пять лет отсрочки.

Помимо конвенции в силу также вступили требования Береговой охраны США, регулирующие балластные операции в территориальных водах этой страны. Для получения типового одобрения Береговой охраны США система УБВ должна пройти тестирование в независимой одобренной лаборатории.

Отметим, что установка СУБВ не является обязательной для соответствия стандартам Береговой охраны США. Судовладельцу предоставлены и другие опции: сдавать балласт на береговые системы обработки (или другое судно), использовать в качестве балласта воду из системы коммунального водоснабжения США или Канады либо оставлять балласт на борту судна.

Береговая охрана США предоставляет отсрочку на 18 или 30 месяцев для судов, которые должны быть приведены в соответствие с правилами к декабрю 2018 года. Чтобы получить отсрочку, судовладелец должен доказать, что судно не может к этой дате начать применять ни один из указанных методов очистки балласта.

 

Официальный сайт организации

 

 

Стандарт ИМО Этап-1 и D-2 реализации Стандарта Службы береговой охраны США (USCG)

Category Regulation
IMO. USCG Phase-1 USCG Phase-2
Aquatic
organisms
< 1.000. bacteria/100ml
< 10.000 virus/100ml
< 1.000. bacteria/100ml
< 10.000 virus/100ml
< 1 visible organisms/ 100m3 < 10 visible organisms/ 100m3 < 1 visible organisms/ 100m3
< 1 visible organisms/ 100ml < 10 visible organisms/ 100ml < 1 visible organisms/ 100ml
Human
health
< 1.000. bacteria/100ml
< 10.000 virus/100ml
< 1.000. bacteria/100ml
< 10.000 virus/100ml
< 1 visible organisms/ 100m3 < 10 visible organisms/ 100m3 < 1 visible organisms/ 100m3
< 1 visible organisms/ 100ml < 10 visible organisms/ 100ml < 1 visible organisms/ 100ml

 

Регламент конвенции ИМО от 30 июня 2018 года о записи данных GPS.

 

HARMFUL AQUATIC ORGANISMS IN BALLAST WATER
Recording working time of ballast water operational pump and connecting it to the GPS system
Submitted by the Islamic Republic of Iran

MARINE ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION COMMITTEE
72nd session
Agenda item 4
MEPC 72/4/7 30 January 2018 Original: ENGLISH
Executive summary:
Strategic direction, if applicable:
Output:
Action to be taken: Related document:

 


SUMMARY


This document is prepared in regard to controlling ballast water exchange or treatment operations in ships (under D-1 or D-2 standards), over the performance of ballast water pump and recording the position, using the Global Positioning System (GPS). It is proposed that the time, date and geographical position of the operation of ballast water pump be recorded both on ships equipped with ballast water management systems and those that follow ballast water exchange standards.
1
No related provisions Paragraph 15
MEPC 71/17

 


Introduction


1 The Ballast Water Management Convention entered into force on 8 September 2017. The provisions of this Convention include two standards for ballast water management on board ships, including D-1 for ballast water exchange en route and D-2 for ballast water performance. Ballast water management systems are generally expensive and complicated in terms of operation and safety, while ships adopting ballast water exchange as a management method to minimize transfer of invasive aquatic species are required (under regulation B-4 of the Convention) to conduct the exchange at a location 200 metres deep, and 200 miles away from the nearest shore. If not possible, such ships can exchange their ballast water at a minimum distance of 50 miles from shore, and at a depth of 200 metres.

 


2 At the time being, compliance of ships with D-1 or D-2 standards cannot be easily controlled through port or flag State control inspections due to the technical limitations in ships. This document proposes a feasible solution for easier and more precise inspection of ships by port or flag State control (PSC/FSC) officers at ports.
Operational challenges facing PSC/FSC officers


3 For ballast water exchange en route, three methods have been considered; the individual or combined implementation of each method requires compliance with considerations pertaining to safety, maintaining stability, operational issues and achieving the necessary minimums as per D-1 specifications. The three methods are:


.1 sequential method;


.2 flow-through method; and


.3 dilution method.


4 In the sequential method, at least 95% of the ballast water needs to be exchanged, and the other methods require an exchange of three times the total volume of the ballast water. Each method entails problems, for instance the sequential method that concerns ship officers with ship safety and stability. The other methods (flow-through and dilution) bring about damage to the ballast tank valves (if ballast water overflows through them), time limitations from the discharge port to the next port of call, or the capacity of the ballast water pumps do not allow for sufficient time between two ports for implementing the overflow method and achieve a 300% exchange of the ballast water.

5 For economic reasons (such as lowering fuel consumption and the related costs), as well as maintaining safety and security, ships tend to navigate close to the shore, and thus the distance of 200 miles (not even the 50 miles from shore) is not usually observed. As a result of the challenges mentioned, ships' crews do not generally comply with the requirements of the Ballast Water Management Convention in practice. This requires special attention when considering the actions taken for ballast water exchange by the crew, as reported to ports through forms in accordance with resolution A.868(20).

6 On ships equipped with ballast water management systems, the systems mentioned should be capable of automatically recording the operation of ballast water pumps, including the date, time and geographical location of each operation. Most ships, however, lack management systems at present, and use the exchange method to comply with the required obligations. In such ships, the pump operations are not recorded, and it is also unclear whether the previously approved systems would be sufficiently capable in this respect.

7 While the entry into force of the Convention calls for ballast water management in accordance with the standard described in regulation D-2, ballast water exchange remains as the prevalent method of compliance, at least for the time being. Existing ships are allowed to exchange their ballast water until deadlines specified in accordance with the first renewal surveys of the IOPP Certificate, and smaller ships, as well as those navigating in particular waters or same risk areas with certain exemptions, exchange ballast water and record the operational details manually in the logbook.

 


Methods for controlling ballast water management

 

8 At present, the following methods exist for port or flag State control officers to ascertain compliance by the ship, neither of which can be held as certain and absolute:


- controlling operation of ship generators when engaging ballast water pumps;
- considering navigation charts and routes, applied manually;
- considering GPS and related booklets recorded manually;
- considering fuel consumption; and
- considering the shipping routes selected by navigation equipment available on the bridge, such as VDR, course recorder, ECDIS, AIS, etc. As the mentioned systems are aids to navigation and optional, ships would not be obliged to have them turned on and operational during navigation.


Proposal


9 Considering the mentioned challenges and limitations mentioned, it is proposed that the operation of ballast water pumps be precisely recorded (including the date, time and geographical location of each operation). This could be achieved automatically in ballasting ports, en route, during exchange and when discharging at ports of destination, using shipboard electronic recording systems.
10 Such systems currently exist for much engine-room machinery (such as alarms for tank or bilge levels), and PSC/FSC officers can refer thereto as evidence for assessing compliance. The system can also be interfaced with GPS, in order to record the location of ballast water pump operations, and also determine the amount of ballast water being exchanged during the trip.
11 The proposed system could also serve as a preventive means against discharge of untreated ballast water to sea, or falsely recording information in the system. Maritime Administrations of the Parties can employ the system towards the achievement of compliance monitoring and enforcement as one of the objectives defined for the Ballast Water Management Convention.
12 The system would have the following capabilities:
.1 recording geographical location of the ship;
.2 recording date and time of system operation;
.3 recording number of pumps being operated;
.4 recording volume of water exchanged or discharged; and
.5 storing information (for control purposes during port inspections).
13 Advantages of using the proposed system include:
.1 preventing illegal discharge of ballast water;
.2 being economical and preventing unnecessary costs for the shipowner;
.3 possessing straightforward mechanism;
.4 allowing determination of last location of ballast water taking or exchanging;
.5 providing easy operation;
.6 preventing system intervention; and
.7 providing valid operational evidence for cases of accident.
14 The system requires the following equipment for installation:
.1 a monitor;
.2 a hard drive;
.3 GPS interface;
.4 wire connection between engine room, bridge and the monitoring system; and
.5 a printer.

 

 

 


Action requested of the Committee


15 The Committee is invited to consider the proposal provided in this document and take action as appropriate.